Directed single mutations are used in research, but in order for multiple directed single mutations to reach a specific goal, the environment has to be manipulated and controlled to allow single mutation steps to survive natural selection along a very narrow path.Nils wrote: ↑Mon Oct 22, 2018 1:27 pmYou are again and again assuming that the only possible evolution mechanism is the coordinated mutations way. It is easily demonstrated that this method is insufficient for evolution (in which you agree) but you don’t argue WHY this has to be the only method. The method of consecutive mutations is straight forward. Why do you abandon this? Beside, the method is used in research and functions well, se post #97.
The manipulated environment of directed evolution just makes the case for how much manipulation and control is required to guide an organism down a path of single mutations.
As I mentioned before, we do have an observable example of non-directed 'random mutation' in malaria.
We can observe the exponential nature of the difference in malaria's ability to develop resistance to atovaquone (which requires a single specific mutation) and malaria's ability to develop resistance to chloroquine (which requires two specific mutations).
If malaria followed the single mutation path premise then the observed difference between malaria's resistance to atovaquone and chloroquine would not be exponential, because malaria could theoretically find a path of two single mutations more quickly than two specific coordinated mutations.
The reason the single mutation path doesn't work is there are so many specific single mutations required to get from one beneficial state that natural selection will propagate to another beneficial state that natural selection will propagate.
And the non-beneficial single mutations along the alleged path will not be propagated because natural selection has no reason to propagate non-beneficial single mutations.
We can observe the capabilities of 'random mutation' in nature. And coordinated mutations that go beyond the complexity of malaria's resistance to chloroquine become unfeasible at an exponential rate.
The only place we observe a path of multiple single mutations is in directed processes.
Observed 'random mutations' and directed evolution both demonstrate that undirected 'random mutation' is incapable of producing what we see in the fossil record and in the DNA of life today.
You are again and again presuming a non-existent capable process which flies in the face of the observed capabilities of random mutation both in nature and in the lab.Talking about Behe you again say that coordinated mutations make things impossible. But there are other methods